# Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World (6th Edition)

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## Book Preface

We are grateful for the overwhelming acceptance of the first five editions. It is gratifying to know that our vision of combining theory, pedagogy, and design to exemplify how statistics is used to picture and describe the world has helped students learn about statistics and make informed decisions. WHAT’S NEW IN THIS EDITION The goal of the Sixth Edition was a thorough update of the key features, examples, and exercises: Examples This edition includes more than 210 examples, approximately 40% of which are new or revised. Exercises Approximately 45% of the more than 2300 exercises are new or revised. Chapter Tests New to this edition are comprehensive tests that appear at the end of each chapter. These tests allow students to assess their understanding of the concepts of the chapter. The questions are given in random order. Extensive Feature Updates Approximately 65% of the following key features are new or revised, making this edition fresh and relevant to today’s students: • Chapter Openers • Case Studies • Real Statistics–Real Decisions: Putting it all together Revised Content The following sections have been changed: • Section 1.3, Data Collection and Experimental Design, now includes an example distinguishing between an observational study and an experiment. • Section 2.4, Measures of Variation, now defines coefficient of variation and contains an example. • Section 2.5, Measures of Position, now includes guidelines and an example on using the interquartile range to identify outliers. The section defines and includes an example on how to find a percentile that corresponds to a specific data entry as well as an example on comparing [email protected] from different data sets. • Section 5.5, Normal Approximations to Binomial Distributions, now includes a discussion of when to add or subtract when using a continuity correction. • Sections 6.1, 6.2, 7.2, 7.3, 8.1, and 8.2 have changed to the more modern approach of using the standard normal distribution when the population standard deviation is known and using the [email protected] when the population standard deviation is unknown. • Chapter 11 can now be found online in MyStatLab and at www.pearsonhighered.com/mathstatsresources.

FEATURES OF THE SIXTH EDITION

Guiding Student Learning Where You’ve Been and Where You’re Going Each chapter begins with a two-page visual description of a real-life problem. Where You’ve Been connects the chapter to topics learned in earlier chapters. Where You’re Going gives students an overview of the chapter. What You Should Learn Each section is organized by learning objectives, presented in everyday language in What You Should Learn. The same objectives are then used as subsection titles throughout the section. Definitions and Formulas are clearly presented in
easy-to-locate boxes. They are often followed by Guidelines, which explain In Words and In Symbols how to apply the formula or understand the definition. Margin Features help reinforce understanding:

• Study Tips show how to read a table, use technology, or interpret a result or a graph. Round-off Rules guide the student during calculations. • Insights help drive home an important interpretation or connect different concepts.

• Picturing the World sections illustrate important concepts in the section through mini case studies. Each feature concludes with a question and can be used for general class discussion or group work. The answers to these questions are included in the Annotated Instructor’s Edition. Examples and Exercises Examples Every concept in the text is clearly illustrated with one or more step-by-step examples. Most examples have an interpretation step that shows the student how the solution may be interpreted within the real-life context of the example and promotes critical thinking and writing skills. Each example, which is numbered and titled for easy reference, is followed by a similar exercise called Try It Yourself so students can immediately practice the skill learned. The answers to these exercises are in the back of the book, and the worked-out solutions are in the Student’s Solutions Manual. The Videos in MyStatLab show clips of an instructor working out each Try It Yourself exercise. Technology Examples Many sections contain a worked example that shows how technology can be used to calculate formulas, perform tests, or display data. Screen displays from Minitab® version 16, Excel® 2013, and the TI-84 Plus graphing calculator (operating system version 2.55) are given. Additional screen displays are presented at the ends of selected chapters, and detailed instructions are given in separate technology manuals available with the book. Exercises The Sixth Edition includes more than 2300 exercises, giving students practice in performing calculations, making decisions, providing explanations, and applying results to a real-life setting. Approximately 45% of these exercises are new or revised. The exercises at the end of each section are divided into three parts:

• Building Basic Skills and Vocabulary are short answer, true or false, and vocabulary exercises carefully written to nurture student understanding.

• Using and Interpreting Concepts are skill or word problems that move from basic skill development to more challenging and interpretive problems.

• Extending Concepts go beyond the material presented in the section. They tend to be more challenging and are not required as prerequisites for subsequent sections. Technology Answers Answers in the back of the book are found using calculations by hand and by tables. Answers found using technology (usually the TI-84 Plus) are also included when there are discrepancies due to rounding. Review and Assessment Chapter Summary Each chapter concludes with a Chapter Summary that answers the question What did you learn? The objectives listed are correlated to Examples in the section as well as to the Review Exercises. Chapter Review Exercises A set of Review Exercises follows each Chapter Summary. The order of the exercises follows the chapter organization. Answers to all odd-numbered exercises are given in the back of the book. Chapter Quizzes Each chapter has a Chapter Quiz. The answers to all quiz questions are provided in the back of the book. For additional help, see the step-by-step video solutions on the companion DVD-ROM. Chapter Tests Each chapter has a Chapter Test. The questions are in random order. The answers to all test questions are provided in the Annotated Instructor’s Edition. Cumulative Review A Cumulative Review at the end of Chapters 2, 5, 8, and 10 concludes each part of the text. Exercises in the Cumulative Review are in random order and may incorporate multiple ideas. Answers to all odd-numbered exercises are given in the back of the book. Statistics in the Real World Uses and Abuses: Statistics in the Real World Each chapter discusses how statistical techniques should be used, while cautioning students about common abuses. The discussion includes ethics, where appropriate. Exercises help students apply their knowledge. Applet Activities Selected sections contain activities that encourage interactive investigation of concepts in the lesson with exercises that ask students to draw conclusions. The accompanying applets are contained on the DVD that accompanies new copies of the text and at www.pearsonhighered.com/mathstatsresources. Chapter Case Study Each chapter has a full-page Case Study featuring actual data from a real-world context and questions that illustrate the important concepts of the chapter. Real Statistics – Real Decisions: Putting it all together This feature encourages students to think critically and make informed decisions about real-world data. Exercises guide students from interpretation to drawing of conclusions. Chapter Technology Project Each chapter has a Technology project using Minitab, Excel, and the TI-84 Plus that gives students insight into how technology is used to handle large data sets or real-life questions.