Introducing Physical Geography 6th Edition
Book PrefaceIntroducing Physical Geography 6th Edition
Our latest edition takes a fresh look at the book ’s second half, covering soils, Earth materials, surface processes, and landforms, while retaining the features adopted in the Fifth Edition. Chapters 10 through 17 have been largely revised and restructured to provide both a better flow of concepts and updated treatments in many areas. Here ’s what ’s new:
■ Chapter 10, Global Soils , now begins with sections focused on soil chemistry and soil moisture, and presents soil orders grouped by maturity, climate, parent materials, and organic matter.
■ Chapter 11, Earth Materials and Plate Tectonics, has been reorganized to proceed from geologic time to Earth ’s inner structure, rock types, and the cycle of rock change. We follow that discussion with our distinctive coverage of plate tectonics.
■ Chapter 12, T ectonic and Volcanic Landforms , places tectonic landforms first in this edition, rooting the discussion more firmly in the context of plate tectonics.
Our treatment of earthquakes is also revised and restructured.
■ Chapter 13, W eathering and Mass Wasting , sorts weathering processes more specifically in this edition, according to their physical and chemical nature, and presents types of mass wasting organized by substrate moisture (dry to wet) and speed of action (fast to slow).
■ Chapter 14, F reshwater of the Continents , focuses on a more direct flow of concepts, from groundwater to surface water, streamflow, and flooding.
■ C hapter 15, Landforms Made by Running Water, organizes the discussion of fluvial processes by erosion, transportation, and deposition, and breaks out stream gradation and evolution at a top level to lead into fluvial landforms.
■ Chapter 16, L andforms Made by Wind and Waves, separates processes and landforms more directly, leading to a better understanding of coastline development and specific dune types. Tsunamis are covered here as a wave phenomenon.
■ Chapter 17, Glacial and Periglacial Landforms, has been restructured to ensure a better flow of information, from types of glaciers to glacial processes and on to landforms, integrating both alpine and continental glaciers. Periglacial processes now are discussed in this chapter, including permafrost and mass wasting.
For this edition we have also revised and refi ned these features:
■ We updated the Eye on Global Change feature, which leads off many chapters, with new data and information. Likewise, the Focus on Remote Sensing feature, appearing in several chapters, has been updated, as needed.
■ We restyled the art, and added many new photos.
■ To maintain relevance and student interest, we updated our examples of natural phenomena, to include more recent hurricanes, tornados, volcanic eruptions, landslides, earthquakes, floods, and wildfires.
■ Finally, we renewed our chapter opening photos, from the collection of the renowned photographer Yann Arthus-Bertrand, featuring images from his new book The New Earth From Above 365 Days . Each provides a fresh viewpoint on the contents of the chapter at hand.
Even as we have moved forward in the areas just noted, we have maintained our emphasis in the Fifth Edition on visual learning. By juxtaposing graphics and photos, we effectively and synergistically develop and illustrate facts and concepts. Many of these art pieces also incorporate text blocks, highlighted with callout lines to particular parts of the photos or graphics; these aid learning more effectively than in-narrative explanations alone. We have also retained the use of “windows,” text boxes within certain columns to reinforce important key concepts and add visual interest . The In Review section at the end of each chapter reads like an abstract, encapsulating the key concepts and relevant terms in short bullet points. The review questions, visualizing exercises, and essay questions all offer opportunities for students to reinforce and demonstrate the knowledge they have acquired.
Physical Geography and the Tools Geographers Use 2
Chapter 1 The Earth as a Rotating Planet 36
Chapter 2 The Earth’s Global Energy Balance 56
Chapter 3 Air Temperature 82
Chapter 4 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation 112
Chapter 5 Winds and Global Circulation 150
Chapter 6 Weather Systems 184
Chapter 7 Global Climates and Climate Change 218
Chapter 8 Biogeographic Processes 264
Chapter 9 Global Biogeography 302
Chapter 10 Global Soils 340
Chapter 11 Earth Materials and Plate Tectonics 374
Chapter 12 Tectonic and Volcanic Landforms 414
Chapter 13 Weathering and Mass Wasting 444
Chapter 14 Freshwater of the Continents 464
Chapter 15 Landforms Made by Running Water 498
Chapter 16 Landforms Made by Waves and Wind 526
Chapter 17 Glacial and Periglacial Landforms 560
Appendix 1 Climate Definitions and Boundaries 591
Appendix 2 Conversion Factors 592
Appendix 3 Topographic Map Symbols 593
Glossary 595 Illustration Credits 623
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