# Lab Manual for Statistical Analysis

## Book Preface

This lab manual is meant to accompany a text covering the basic statistics used in the behavioral sciences. It will focus on practicing the statistical skills and concepts you are covering in the course rather than providing the instruction on skills and concepts. In addition, the basics of research design are covered in some activities either on their own or where applicable to accompany statistical analysis.

There are five main sections. The first section contains activities that correspond to topics typically covered in statistics courses. The second section includes activities that examine the underlying statistical formulae with an emphasis on the conceptual similarities and differences among related statistical tests. The third section contains activities related to data analysis projects (including data sets) that students can analyze for analysis projects. The fourth section includes activities designed to help students choose the correct test for different types of data. The fifth section contains exercises designed to help students write up and interpret results from analyses in APA style.

# Contents

- Preface
- Introduction for Students
- Section 1. Topic Activities
- 1. Statistics in the Media
- 2. The Purpose of Statistics
- 3. Understanding Your Data
- 4. Research Concepts: Designs, Validity, and Scales of Measurement
- 5. Measurement Group Activity
- 6. Designing an Experiment Group Activity
- 7. Experimental Variables
- 8. Distributions and Probability
- 9. Displaying Distributions
- 10. Setting Up Your Data in SPSS: Creating a Data File
- 11. Displaying Distributions in SPSS
- 12. Basic Probability
- 13. Sampling
- 14. Central Tendency 1
- 15. Central Tendency 2
- 16. Central Tendency in SPSS
- 17. Describing a Distribution by Hand
- 18. More Describing Distributions
- 19. Descriptive Statistics Exercise
- 20. Descriptive Statistics With Excel
- 21. Measures of Variability in SPSS
- 22. Calculating z Scores Using SPSS
- 23. The Normal Distribution
- 24. z Scores and the Normal Distribution
- 25. Hypothesis Testing With Normal Populations
- 26. Stating Hypotheses and Choosing Tests
- 27. Hypothesis Testing With z Tests
- 28. Hypothesis Testing With a Single Sample
- 29. One-Sample t Test in SPSS
- 30. One-Sample t Tests by Hand
- 31. Related Samples t Tests
- 32. Related Samples t Test in SPSS
- 33. Independent Samples t Tests
- 34. Hypothesis Testing: Multiple Tests
- 35. More Hypothesis Tests With Multiple Tests
- 36. t Tests Summary Worksheet
- 37. Choose the Correct t Test
- 38. One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA by Hand
- 39. One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA in SPSS
- 40. Factorial ANOVA
- 41. One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA
- 42. One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA in SPSS
- 43. ANOVA Review
- 44. Which Test Should I Use?
- 45. Correlations and Scatterplots Exercise
- 46. Correlations and Scatterplots 2
- 47. Correlations and Scatterplots in SPSS
- 48. Computing Correlations by Hand
- 49. Computing Correlations by Hand 2
- 50. Hypothesis Testing With Correlation
- 51. Hypothesis Testing With Correlation Using SPSS
- 52. Regression
- 53. Chi-Square Test for Independence

- Section 2. Meet the Formulae
- 54. Meet the Formula: Standard Deviation
- 55. Meet the Formula: z Score Transformation
- 56. Meet the Formula: Single-Sample z Tests and t Tests
- 57. Meet the Formula: Comparing Independent Samples and Related Samples t Tests
- 58. Meet the Formula: One-Factor Between-Subjects ANOVA
- 59. Meet the Formula: Two-Factor ANOVA
- 60. Meet the Formula: One-Factor Within-Subjects ANOVA
- 61. Meet the Formula: Correlation
- 62. Meet the Formula: Bivariate Regression

- Section 3. Data Analysis Projects
- 63. Data Analysis Exercise: von Hippel, Ronay, Baker, Kjelsaas, and Murphy (2016)
- 64. Data Analysis Exercise: Nairne, Pandeirada, and Thompson (2008)
- 65. Data Analysis Project 1: Crammed Versus Distributed Study
- 66. Data Analysis Project 2: Teaching Techniques Study
- 67. Data Analysis Project 3: Distracted Driving Study
- 68. Data Analysis Project 4: Temperature and Air Quality Study
- 69. Data Analysis Project 5: Job Type and Satisfaction Study
- 70. Data Analysis Project 6: Attractive Face Recognition Study
- 71. Data Analysis Project 7: Discrimination in the Workplace Study

- Section 4. How to Choose a Statistical Test
- 72. Using the Flowchart to Find the Correct Statistical Test
- 73. More Using the Flowchart to Find the Correct Statistical Test
- 74. Research Design Exercise
- 75. Design and Data Collection Exercise
- 76. Designs and Analyses

- Section 5. Describing and Interpreting Results in APA Style
- 77. Writing a Results Section From SPSS Output: t Tests
- 78. Writing a Results Section From SPSS Output: ANOVA
- 79. Interpreting Results Exercise: Sproesser, Schupp, and Renner (2014)
- 80. Interpreting Results Exercise: Ravizza, Uitvlugt, and Fenn (2017)

- Appendix: Summary of Formulae
- References

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