Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders 6th
The first edition of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders, published in 1988, was very well received by the readers and motivated us to work on the subsequent four editions. Since the fifth edition, published in 2007, extraordinary advances have been made in Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. The primary goal of this sixth edition is to highlight and critically review this progress. Functional, biochemical, or structural abnormalities of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and their connections are responsible for the vast majority of the disorders discussed in this volume. The traditional models of the basal ganglia and their role in motor control, somatosensory function, and behavior, however, are continuously being refined. Our understanding of mechanisms underlying cell death and their relevance to neurodegeneration has also improved markedly as a result of new knowledge about cell biology and genetics. It is now generally accepted that there is no single cause of Parkinson’s disease, and the concept of “Parkinson’s diseases” is now emerging to indicate multiple subtypes and etiologies for a group of diseases with overlapping clinical and pathologic features. Neurodegenerative disorders are now categorized according to the predominant pathologic abnormality into synucleinopathies (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy bodies), tauopathies (e.g., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism), and TDP-43 proteinopathies, but new classes of neurodegenerative diseases are expected to emerge as we learn about new and unifying pathogenic mechanisms. In addition to the motor abnormalities associated with the various basal ganglia disorders, nonmotor aspects are increasingly recognized as potentially even more disabling symptoms than the classic motor features. The nonmotor features include a variety of cognitive and behavioral symptoms (including dementia, depression, and psychosis), sensory abnormalities (including anosmia, paresthesias, and pain), autonomic dysfunction (including orthostatic hypotension, bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction), and sleep disturbances (including insomnia and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder). These nonmotor symptoms are often resistant to levodopa therapy.
Although levodopa continues to be the most effective symptomatic treatment for Parkinson’s disease, the emergence of motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, and other complications limits its usefulness. Strategies designed to prevent and treat these levodopa-related complications are addressed in several chapters. Other advances in the symptomatic therapy of dystonia, tremor, tics, myoclonus, painful rigidity, restless legs syndrome, and other movement disorders are also highlighted in this volume. Considerable attention is devoted to surgical treatments, including deep brain stimulation. We also highlight advances in experimental therapeutics and review relevant drugs and other treatments in the pipeline.
In addition to updating all previously published chapters, we have recruited new authors to cover novel topics such as mechanism and prevention of cell death, frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism and other tauopathies, paraneoplastic and immunologically-mediated movement disorders, sleep and fatigue in Parkinson’s disease, movement disorders in systemic disease, cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease, trophic factor and gene therapies for Parkinson’s disease, nonpharmacologic multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, and peripherally-induced movement disorders. We have also added videos to the Video Atlas of Movement Disorders, introduced with the fifth edition. Since
the diagnosis of movement disorders is based on phenomenology and pattern recognition, these instructive videos clearly enhance the educational value of the book. The atlas consists of a compilation of videos of movement disorders from more than 100 patients evaluated at the Baylor College of Medicine Movement Disorders Clinic, supplemented by videos provided by the authors. The atlas illustrates the broad spectrum of common, as well as unusual, movement disorders. All patients in these videos gave their permission to use the videos to expand knowledge about this range of disorders and to educate professionals and trainees. It is the hope and wish of the editors that this new edition will serve as a testimony to the extraordinary progress that has been made in the area of Parkinson’s disease, related neurodegenerative disorders, and movement disorders. This comprehensive volume highlights recent advances in basic and clinical sciences related to movement disorders and as such should be of interest not only to clinicians concerned with the care of those afflicted with Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders but also to clinical and basic investigators pursuing answers to some of the unanswered questions about the pathogenesis of this challenging group of disorders. In addition to neurologists and neuroscientists, this book should be of value to neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, physiatrists, neurophysiologists, neuropsychologists, primary care physicians, nurses, and all other health-care professionals caring for patients with movement disorders.
We are extremely grateful to all the distinguished contributors for their scholarly reviews. We also wish to express our deep appreciation to the professional staff of Wolters Kluwer Health, particularly Andrea Vosburgh, Product Development Editor. Without her professionalism and her tireless efforts, this volume could not have been delivered in such a timely and professional way. Finally, and most importantly, we wish to express our deep appreciation to our wives and families for their support throughout this project and over the many decades of our shared lives.
Joseph Jankovic, MD (Houston)
Eduardo Tolosa, MD (Barcelona)
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