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Physiology of Sport and Exercise Sixth Edition



Physiology of Sport and Exercise Sixth Edition

Author: W. Larry Kenney

Publisher: Human Kinetics,

Genres:

Publish Date: May 19, 2015

ISBN-10: 1450477674

Pages: 648

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

The body is an amazingly complex machine. At any given time, various cells, tissues, organs, and systems use intricate communication to coordinate the body’s physiological functions. When you think of the numerous processes occurring within the body at any given time, it is truly remarkable that these physiological functions work so well together. Even at rest, the body is physiologically quite active. Imagine, then, how much more active all of these body systems become when you engage in exercise. During exercise, nerves excite muscles to contract. Exercising muscles are metabolically active and require more nutrients, more oxygen, and efficient clearance of waste products. How does the whole body respond to the increased physiological demands of exercise? That is the key question when you study the physiology of sport and exercise. Physiology of Sport and Exercise, Sixth Edition, introduces you to the fields of sport and exercise physiology. Our goal is to build on the knowledge that you developed during basic course work in human anatomy and physiology and to apply those principles in studying how the body performs and responds to the added demands of physical activity.

What’s New in the Sixth Edition

The sixth edition of Physiology of Sport and Exercise maintains the previous edition’s high standard for illustrations, photos, and medical artwork. This visual detail, clarity, and realism allow both a greater insight into the body’s response to activity and a better understanding of the underlying research. In addition, the text is now augmented with animations, audio, and video clips, provided online in the student web study guide and separately for instructors. Throughout the text, you will find icons to identify pieces of artwork that are the basis for an animation or that have an accompanying audio clip. Accessing these resources will further aid understanding of the illustrations and the physiological processes they represent. In addition, video clips feature experts in the field discussing exciting current topics of research. The new edition also highlights current research with the addition of “Research Perspective” elements. These inserts discuss a wide range of important new or developing topics in current exercise physiology, providing interested students with additional insight into the state of research in the field. We have also revised the introductory chapter to include information on the research process and scientific inquiry, chapters 4 and 22 to include information on hormonal regulation of caloric intake, and chapters 9 through 11 on exercise training to incorporate information on high-intensity interval training and the interaction of exercise and dietary protein intake. We have fully reorganized and updated chapter 16, “Ergogenic Aids in Sport.” In addition we have extensively updated the text to include the latest research on important topics in the field, including the following:

New information on the use of lactate as a fuel (chapter 2) Mechanisms associated with different types of fatigue and muscle cramps (chapter 5) Updated information on stroke volume changes during exercise (chapter 8) A new section on periodization to optimize training effects (chapter 14) Revision of information in chapter 20 to reflect new concepts on the negative health role of sitting and inactivity
All of these changes retain an emphasis on the ease of reading and ease of understanding that have made this book the leading text for introducing students to this exciting field. The overall structure and progression of the text have been retained from the fifth edition. Our first focus is on muscle and how its needs are altered as an individual goes from a resting to an active state and how these needs are supported by—and interact with —other body systems. In later chapters we address principles of exercise training; considerations of environmental factors of heat, cold, and altitude; sport performance; and exercise for disease prevention.

Organization of the Sixth Edition

We begin in the introduction with a historical overview of sport and exercise physiology as they have emerged from the parent disciplines of anatomy and physiology, and we explain basic concepts that are used throughout the text. In parts I and II, we review the major physiological systems, focusing on their responses to acute bouts of exercise. In part I, we focus on how the muscular, metabolic, nervous, and endocrine systems interact to produce body movement. In part II, we look at how the cardiovascular and respiratory systems continue to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the active muscles and transport waste products away during physical activity. In part III, we consider how these systems adapt to chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., training).

We change perspective in part IV to examine the impact of the external environment on physical performance. We consider the body’s response to heat and cold, and then we examine the impact of low atmospheric pressure experienced at altitude. In part V, we shift attention to how athletes can optimize physical performance. We evaluate the effects of different types and volumes of training. We consider the importance of appropriate body composition for optimal performance and examine athletes’ special dietary needs, as well as how nutrition can be used to enhance performance. Finally, we explore the use of ergogenic aids—substances purported to improve athletic ability. In part VI, we examine unique considerations for specific populations.

We look first at the processes of growth and development and how they affect the performance capabilities of young athletes. We evaluate changes that occur in physical performance as people age and explore the ways in which physical activity can help maintain health and independence.

Finally, we examine issues and special physiological concerns of female athletes. In the final part of the book, part VII, we turn our attention to the application of sport and exercise physiology to prevent and treat various diseases and the use of exercise for rehabilitation. We look at prescribing exercise for maintaining health and fitness, and we then close the book with a discussion of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes.


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