Picturepedia: An Encyclopedia on Every Page
10 The Universe 12 The planets 14 The Moon 16 Space exploration 18 Stargazing 20 Northern skies 22 Southern skies 24 Physics 26 Electricity 28 Chemistry 30 The elements 32 Biology 34 The human body 36 Skeleton 38 Muscles 40 The brain 42 Computers 44 Inventions 46 Numbers 48 Geometry 50 Cars 52 Tractors 54 Trucks and diggers 56 Trains 58 Motorbikes 60 Aircraft 62 The story of ﬂight 64 Bicycles 68 Tree of life 70 How life began 72 Fossils 74 Plant-eating dinosaurs 76 Meat-eating dinosaurs 78 Prehistoric animals 80 Plants 82 Flowers 84 Trees 86 Mushrooms 88 Spiders and scorpions 90 Crustaceans 92 Insects 94 Butterﬂies and moths 96 Slugs and snails 98 Fish 100 Sharks 102 Seashells 104 Amphibians 106 Turtles and tortoises 108 Lizards 110 Snakes 112 Crocodiles and alligators 114 Eggs 116 Birds
118 Birds of prey 120 Feathers 122 Animal journeys 124 Rodents 126 Monkeys and apes 128 Wild cats 130 Whales and dolphins 132 Animal skeletons 134 Dogs 136 Cats 138 Horses 140 Farm animals 142 Forest 144 Rainforest 146 Savanna 148 Deserts 150 Polar habitats 152 Ocean 154 Coral reef 158 Earth 160 Volcanoes 162 Earthquakes 164 Shaping the land 166 Rocks and minerals 168 Gems 170 Water on Earth 172 Climate and weather 174 Extreme weather 176 Environment in danger 178 Our physical world 180 Our political world 182 Asia 184 North America 186 South America 188 Europe 190 Africa 192 Oceania 194 Antarctica 196 Flags 198 Where food comes from
202 World religions 204 World celebrations 206 World languages 208 The story of art 210 Musical instruments 212 How music works 214 Dance 216 Ballet 218 Great buildings 220 Great books 222 Great thinkers 224 Food around the world 226 Fruit 228 Vegetables 230 Cheese 232 Bread 234 Pasta 236 Fish for food 238 Meat 240 Men’s fashion 242 Women’s fashion
246 Ball sports 248 Football 250 American football 252 Baseball 254 Basketball 256 Racket sports 258 Tennis 260 Athletics 262 Winter sports 264 Cycling 266 Water sports 268 Sailing 270 Fishing 272 Combat sports 274 Knots 276 Games 278 Magic 280 Horse riding 284 The ﬁrst humans 286 Early civilizations 288 Ancient Egypt 290 Ancient Greece 292 Greek myths 294 Ancient Rome 296 The Vikings 298 Ancient Americas 300 The Ottoman Empire 302 The Mughal Empire 304 Imperial Japan 306 Imperial China 308 Medieval Europe 310 Castles 312 The Renaissance 314 Exploration 316 Revolutions 318 US Presidents 320 US Civil War 322 European empires 324 British monarchs 326 The Industrial Revolution 328 World War I 330 World War II 332 The Cold War 334 Spies
The Universe is everything that exists – all of space, matter, energy, and time. It is a huge wide-open space with billions of galaxies, each containing billions of stars, and yet it is at least 99.99 per cent empty space. It has been expanding constantly since its beginning 13.8 billion years ago, when it exploded into life with the “Big Bang”.
Around 4.6 billion years ago, a great cloud of dust and gas formed into the Sun. The parts that were not used began to form into clumps, which grew into planets orbiting the Sun. The four planets closest to the Sun formed from rock and metal. The four bigger outer planets formed from gases.
Always in orbit around Earth, the Moon is known as Earth’s satellite. It provides Earth with light during the night, though it has no light of its own – it merely reflects the Sun’s light, like a mirror. It is the closest object to Earth in space, and we can see its cratered surface even with the naked eye.
At the start of the 20th century, rockets were invented that were powerful enough to blast away from Earth. By the century’s end, thousands of spacecraft and hundreds of people had entered space. The spacecraft of the 21st century are beginning to explore the furthest reaches of our Solar System.
Astronomy is the branch of science that is dedicated to studying stars, planets, and all the celestial bodies that surround Earth. It seeks to explain where we came from and the beginning of the Universe itself.
If you live north of the equator, you live in the northern hemisphere. On a dark and cloudless night, you can see a mass of glittering stars. If you know what to look for, you can pick out individual stars, constellations, and other wonders of the night sky
If you live south of the equator, you live in the southern hemisphere. On a clear night, the southern skies give a fantastic view of the Milky Way, bright star clusters, constellations, colourful nebulae – and even whole galaxies
How do forces, such as gravity and magnetism, affect matter – the stuff all around us? And how does energy make that possible? The answers to these questions are found in physics. Physicists try to unravel the rules of the Universe to explain why the world works as it does.
We use electricity to power all sorts of things, from factories and trains to the many small appliances in our homes. The energy it contains comes from charged electrons that whizz around inside every atom.
Chemists dig deep. They begin with the elements that make up all matter, and break them down into tiny atoms. They analyse what the atoms are, how they change state, and how they react when they mix.
The building blocks of every single thing on Earth are pure chemical substances called elements. Put a few elements together by joining their atoms and you can get anything from a flea to a space rocket. Carbon-based elements are found in all living things, while water has just two elements – hydrogen and oxygen
Biology is the science of all life, from microscopic bacteria that cannot be seen with the naked eye to enormous animals such as elephants and whales. It includes their form and function, origin and growth, and evolution and distribution
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