Theory of Machines and Mechanisms 5th Edition
The tremendous growth of scientific knowledge over the past 50 years has resulted in an intense pressure on the engineering curricula of many universities to substitute “modern” subjects in place of subjects perceived as weaker or outdated. The result is that, for some, the kinematics and dynamics of machines has remained a critical component of the curriculum and a requirement for all mechanical engineering students, while at others, a course on these subjects is only made available as an elective topic for specialized study by a small number of engineering students. Some schools, depending largely on the faculty, require a greater emphasis on mechanical design at the expense of depth of knowledge in analytical techniques. Rapid advances in technology, however, have produced a need for a textbook that satisfies the requirement of new and changing course structures.
Much of the new knowledge in the theory of machines and mechanisms currently exists in a large variety of technical journals and manuscripts, each couched in its own singular language and nomenclature and each requiring additional background for clear comprehension. It is possible that the individual published contributions could be used to strengthen engineering courses if the necessary foundation was provided and a common notation and nomenclature was established. These new developments could then be integrated into existing courses to provide a logical, modern, and comprehensive whole. The purpose of this book is to provide the background that will allow such an integration.
This book is intended to cover that field of engineering theory, analysis, design, and practice that is generally described as mechanisms or as kinematics and dynamics of machines. Although this text is written primarily for students of mechanical engineering, the content can also be of considerable value to practicing engineers throughout their professional careers.
To develop a broad and basic comprehension, the text presents numerous methods of analysis and synthesis that are common to the literature of the field. The authors have included graphic methods of analysis and synthesis extensively throughout the book, because they are firmly of the opinion that graphic methods provide visual feedback that enhances the student’s understanding of the basic nature of, and interplay between, the underlying equations. Therefore, graphic methods are presented as one possible solution technique, but are always accompanied by vector equations defined by the fundamental laws of mechanics, rather than as graphic “tricks” to be learned by rote and applied blindly. In addition, although graphic techniques, performed by hand, may lack accuracy, they can be performed quickly, and even inaccurate sketches can often provide reasonable estimates of a solution and can be used to check the results of analytic or numeric solution techniques.
The authors also use conventional methods of vector analysis throughout the book, both in deriving and presenting the governing equations and in their solution. Raven’s methods using complex algebra for the solution of two-dimensional vector equations are included because of their compactness, because of the ease of taking derivatives, because they are employed so frequently in the literature, and because they are so easy to program for computer evaluation. In the chapter dealing with three-dimensional kinematics and robotics, the authors present a brief introduction to Denavit and Hartenberg’s methods using transformation matrices.
Another feature of this text is its focus on the method of kinematic coefficients, which are derivatives of motion variables with respect to the input position variable(s) rather than with respect to time. The authors believe that this analytic technique provides several important advantages, namely: (1) Kinematic coefficients clarify for the student those parts of a motion problem that are kinematic (geometric) in their nature, and clearly separate these from the parts that are dynamic or speed dependent. (2) Kinematic coefficients help to integrate the analysis of different types of mechanical systems, such as gears, cams, and linkages, which might not otherwise seem similar.
One dilemma that all writers on the subject of this book have faced is how to distinguish between the motions of different points of the same moving body and the motions of coincident points of different moving bodies. In other texts, it has been customary to describe both of these as “relative motion”; however, because they are two distinctly different situations and are described by different equations, this causes the student confusion in distinguishing between them. We believe that we have greatly relieved this problem by the introduction of the terms motion difference and apparent motion and by using different terminology and different notation for the two cases. Thus, for example, this book uses the two terms velocity difference and apparent velocity, instead of the term “relative velocity,” which will not be found when speaking rigorously. This approach is introduced beginning with position and displacement, used extensively in the chapter on velocity, and brought to fulfillment in the chapter on accelerations, where the Coriolis component always arises in, and only arises in, the apparent acceleration equation.
Access to personal computers, programmable calculators, and laptop computers is commonplace and is of considerable importance to the material of this book. Yet engineering educators have told us very forcibly that they do not want computer programs included in the text. They prefer to write their own programs, and they expect their students to do so as well. Having programmed almost all the material in the book many times, we also understand that the book should not include such programs and thus become obsolete with changes in computers or programming languages.
The authors have endeavored to use US Customary units and SI units in about equal proportions throughout the book. However, there are certain exceptions. For example, in Chapter 14 (Dynamics of Reciprocating Engines), only SI units are presented, because engines are designed for an international marketplace, even by US companies. Therefore, they are always rated in kilowatts rather than horsepower, they have displacements in liters rather than cubic inches, and their cylinder pressures are measured in kilopascals rather than pounds per square inch.
Part 1 of this book deals mostly with theory, nomenclature, notation, and methods of analysis. Serving as an introduction, Chapter 1 tells what a mechanism is, what a mechanism can do, how mechanisms can be classified, and what some of their limitations are. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are concerned totally with analysis, specifically with kinematic analysis, because they cover position, velocity, and acceleration analyses, respectively, of single-degree-of-freedom planar mechanisms. Chapter 5 expands this background to include multi-degree-of-freedom planar mechanisms.
Part 2 of the book goes on to demonstrate engineering applications involving the selection, the specification, the design, and the sizing of mechanisms to accomplish specific motion objectives. This part includes chapters on cam systems, gears, gear trains, synthesis of linkages, spatial mechanisms, and an introduction to robotics. Chapter 6 is a study of the geometry, kinematics, proper design of high-speed cam systems, and now includes material on the dynamics of elastic cam systems. Chapter 7 studies the geometry and kinematics of spur gears, particularly of involute tooth profiles, their manufacture, and proper tooth meshing, and then studies gear trains, with an emphasis on epicyclic and differential gear trains. Chapter 8 expands this background to include helical gears, bevel gears, worms, and worm gears. Chapter 9 is an introduction to the kinematic synthesis of planar linkages. Chapter 10 is a brief introduction to the kinematic analysis of spatial mechanisms and robotics, including the forward and inverse kinematics problems.
Part 3 of the book adds the dynamics of machines. In a sense, this part is concerned with the consequences of the mechanism design specifications. In other words, having designed a machine by selecting, specifying, and sizing the various components, what happens during the operation of the machine? What forces are produced? Are there any unexpected operating results? Will the proposed design be satisfactory in all respects? Chapter 11 presents the static force analysis of machines. This chapter also includes sections focusing on the buckling of two-force members subjected to axial loads. Chapter 12 studies the planar and spatial aspects of the dynamic force analysis of machines. Chapter 13 then presents the vibration analysis of mechanical systems. Chapter 14 is a more detailed study of one particular type of mechanical system, namely the dynamics of both single- and multi-cylinder reciprocating engines. Chapter 15 next addresses the static and dynamic balancing of rotating and reciprocating systems. Finally, Chapter 16 is on the study of the dynamics of flywheels, governors, and gyroscopes.
As with all texts, the subject matter of this book also has limitations. Probably the clearest boundary on the coverage in this text is that it is limited to the study of rigid-body mechanical systems. It does study planar multibody systems with movable connections or constraints between them. However, all motion effects are assumed to come within the connections; the shapes of the individual bodies are assumed constant, except for the dynamics of elastic cam systems. This assumption is necessary to allow the separate study of kinematic effects from those of dynamics. Because each individual body is assumed rigid, it can have no strain; therefore, except for buckling of axially loaded members, the study of stress is also outside the scope of this text. It is hoped, however, that courses using this text can provide background for the later study of stress, strength, fatigue life, modes of failure, lubrication, and other aspects important to the proper design of mechanical systems.
Despite the limitations on the scope of this book, it is still clear that it is not reasonable to expect that all of the material presented here can be covered in a single-semester course. As stated above, a variety of methods and applications have been included to allow the instructor to choose those topics that best fit the course objectives and to still provide a reference for follow-on courses and help build the student’s library. Yet, many instructors have asked for suggestions regarding a choice of topics that might fit a 3-hour per week, 15-week course. Two such outlines follow, as used by two of the authors to teach such courses at their institutions. It is hoped that these might be used as helpful guidelines to assist others in making their own parallel choices.
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